Public Summary

Summary of Forest Management Plan (FMP) for Mengiong – Gaat Forest Management Unit (FMU)

  1. Background of Management Area:

Mengiong – Gaat FMU has a total licensed area of 95,879 Ha, forming partial Gaat –Mengiong Protected Forest which falls inside the watershed of Sg. Mengiong – Sg. Gaat – Batang Baleh area. The FMU area covers a total area of 39,753 Ha. This Mengiong – Gaat FMP will be divided into 25 coupes and 56,126 Ha will be excluded from the FMU which consist of NCR Claim area, Baleh HEP dam construction inundated zone, 100 m buffer zone reserved along dam inundated areas and salvage logging areas.

The Mengiong – Gaat FMU was previously part of Rajang Wood Sdn. Bhd. under FTL No. T/3024 which was first issued to STIDC (Piramid Intan Sdn. Bhd.) under FTL No. T/3401 on 12th April, 2001 and expired in 11th April, 2021.

  1. Physical Features and Boundaries:

The altitudes of Mengiong – Gaat FMU is ranging from 250 feet in the Northern part at the lower hill areas to 2,250 feet at highest spot at the mid-center tip above sea level next to Juta Kayu Sdn. Bhd. timber licence area – Ulu Sg. Mengiong and Sg. Gaat, Batang Baleh Sarawak.

Mengiong – Gaat FMU is mainly covers by Terrain Classes (MDF II, III and IV), only few areas have steep dissected terrain with slope greater than 35o or Terrain Class IV which is too steep for conventional bulldozers based logging. The region has a tropical type of climate affected by the monsoon seasons, which is generally hot, wet and humid throughout the year.

The Locality Map of Mengiong – Gaat FMU

  1. Management Objectives:

Our management objectives are:

a) optimum utilization of the forest resources;
b) regulation of the harvest on a sustained yield basis with strict adherence to RIL practice;
c) regeneration of the forest and improvement of the stocking of commercial species by suitable silvicultural methods;
d) Monitoring the forest growth through forest mensuration and stand assessment besides ensuring the harvested volume of timber is not in excess of pre-assessment of the residual stand;
e) To adopt multiple-uses of forest to serve social, economic and environmental purposes on a sustainable basis within estimated budget to achieve economic viability;
f) Enhancing carbon storage in the forest ecosystem through minimal disturbance of forest;
g) Minimum disturbance or protection on soil and water and least environmental impacts to protect ecological diversity and resources;
h) Long term conservation and sustainable use of wildlife and HCVF areas in compliance with DF Circular No. 6/99;
i) To enhance local communal relationship and stress on the social benefits of forest to local communities, (if any); and
j) To respect worker’s right and ensure safe work place.

  1. Forest Zoning:
  • Production Area – Mixed Hill Dipterocarp Forests for the production of mainly timber.
  • Conservation Area – undisturbed and partially disturbed which would serve as reference as continuous in research studies, refuge and breeding sites, as well as timber tree seed production and conservation of genetic diversity.
  • Shifting Agriculture Area (areas affected by the local communities used)

Types of Zones and Sizes in Hectares:

Area Type of Zones Area
FMU Area
Production Forests 36,113 90.84
Shifting Agriculture (SA) 3,077 7.74
HCV Area Terrain IV 134 0.34
Buffer Zones 279 0.70
HCVF 127 0.32
Water Catchment 13 0.03
Saltlicks 10 0.03
Sub-total 39,753 41.46
from FMU
100 m Buffer Zone Area 5,777 6.03
Baleh HEP Inundated Zone 18,802 19.61
Salvage Logging 19,476 20.31
Conservation Area 11,922 12.43
NCR Claimed Area 149 0.16
Sub-total 56,126 58.54
Total Licensed Area 95,879 100
  1. Forest Resources and Forest Research:
  • More than 15 Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) were established within the FMU area. The objective for the establishment of PSPs is to determine the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) to sustainably manage this FMU area.
  • The calculation of AAC was based on the PSPs result for growth simulation.
  • A repeated simulation runs have been carried out using different harvesting scenarios and their results were analyzed in terms of sustainability with estimated harvested volume that will be achieved.
  • It has a 25-year cutting cycle with an extractable of 16 – 24 trees/ha and an average harvestable volume of 43.0430 m3/ha.
  • This calculation serves as a temporary indication of sustainable harvestable volume.
  • Identification and monitoring of Endangered, Rare and Threatened (ERT) Species and their habitats and dynamism in sustainability well managed forest area.
  • Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFPs) likes palm, bamboo, rattan, wild fruits and edible wild vegetable are present in the FMU.
  • Based on 15 PSPs, it has a total of 92 trees for DBHOB 30.0 cm and above with an estimated volume of 104.53 m3/ha, amongst which 77 trees are from DBHOB 30.0 – 49.9 cm with an average fross volume of 67.75 m3/ha whereas 24 trees or 49.25 m3/ha for 45.0 cm and above, and another 16 trees for DBHOB 50.0 cm and above with an estimated volume of 36.78 m3/ha respectively.
  • FMU has the total of 15 ERT species of fauna with 21 species consisting of mammals, 2 reptiles and 1 insect.
  • Rate of Annual Harvest:

(i.) The average of harvestable yields within the PSP research is 42.91 m3/ha, an average figure derived from both high density and low density productive areas showing fair representation of PSPs.

(ii.) The preliminary growth calculation of Mean Annual Increment (MAI) is 0.4 cm/year and 1.7216 m3/ha/year. The basal area is calculated as 25.3 m2/ha.

(iii.) Allowable Cutting Area (ACA) is 1,590 ha/year.

(iv.) AAC is 47,907 m3/year of production limit for the initial planning of this FMP.

  1. Management Plan Prescriptions:
  • The management abides all laws, ordinances and rules which regulate the implementation of the Forest Policy of Sarawak and to comply with the requirements of Malaysia Criteria and Indicators for Forest Management Certification (Natural Forest) [MC&I (Natural Forest)] under the Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme (MTCS).
  • The management follows the trees felling cutting rules approved by Forest Department Sarawak (FDS).
  • The FMU adopt the Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) system using modified excavators and 100% tagging of trees harvested.
  • This FMU is divided into 25 coupes based on 25-years cutting cycle.
  • The FMP would be revised every 5 years to include and incorporate any new and practical recommendation from monitoring in order to keep the management plan on track to have an up-to-date resource data.
  1. Planning of Forest Roads and Harvesting Systems:
  • The construction and maintenance of roads, drainage structures and bridges in accordance with the Guidelines for Forest Road Layout.
  • Planning procedure to follow strictly the approved General Harvesting Plan (GP) and Detailed Harvesting Plan (DP) for long-term economic benefit of the FMU holder.
  • Demarcation of all boundaries such as licence, FMU, coupe year, block, area for protection and conservation would be carried out before pre- felling inspection.
  • Tree tagging of 100% enumeration for harvestable trees, protected trees, potential crop trees, mother Trees, seed fruit trees and nesting trees respectively would be done.
  • The RIL practice would involve pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting planning and related activities.
  • The monitoring and control of pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting within the FMU is executed by FDS.
  1. Harvesting Operation:
  • Training of forest workers in accordance with the Section 51 of the Forest Ordinance, 2015.
  • Strictly follow the RIL Guidelines in timber operation through selective cutting by using modified excavator with winch to minimize the impact to residual stand, soil and water disturbance. This involves pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting planning and related activities.
  • Adopt directional felling technique to minimal the damages to the forest.
  • Post-harvest activities include the installation of cross drains and sedimentation or silt traps and 10% enumeration technique in sampling from 2 – 5% of post-logging assessment that including logging damage assessment and enumeration for the residue stands to establish the sivilculture or mosaic planting methods for enrichment planting where necessary.
  • All harvested logs are traceable and verifiable through Chain of Custody (COC).
  1. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA):
  • The EIA of this FMU was approved by the Controller of Natural Resources and Environment Board (NREB) Sarawak on 23rd September, 2013.
  • To follow terms and conditions of approval in accordance with the provisions of Natural Resources and Environment Ordinance 1993 and Natural Resources & Environment (Prescribed Activities) Order, 1994.
  • The FMU is conducting quarterly Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) to monitor the status of General Terms and Conditions and mitigations as required in the approved EIA.
  • The environmental baseline of water quality of the FMU is within the Compliance Limits (Class IIB) of the National water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQSM).
  • The monitoring and control was based on guidelines of pre-felling and post harvesting activities, EMR, HCV and SIA closely.
  1. Silviculture, Forest Rehabilitation and Reforestation:
  • Enrichment planting of fast growing indigenous species Kelampayan (Neolambarkia cadamba) and other suitable local species to improve the timber stocking of this FMU.
  • Enrichment planting with Mosaic planting method would be conducted in those degraded areas.
  • Climbers/creepers cutting would be done in harvested area.
  1. Wildlife Management:
  • Control of hunting and trespassing by strict adherence of DF Circular No. 6/99 on wildlife conservator and improvement of gate control/guard house.
  • To instill awareness about wildlife management to forest workers.
  • Through scheduled periodic patrolling of the FMU area.
  • Appointment of Honorary Wildlife Officer to assist in wildlife conservation and monitoring purposes.
  1. Identification and Management of Protected and Conservation Areas:
  • Management of Protected and Conservation Areas.
No.CategoriesManagement Requirements
1.Non-Commercial or Poorly Stocked AreaLow stocking area will be excluded from FMU harvesting area.
2.Permanent WaterwayRiparian buffer zone as approved in EIA by NREB will be identified and demarcated with recommended width on the ground.
3.Steep SlopeSteep Terrain IV or slope greater than 35° as indicated in Sarawak Forestry Map B will be mapped and excluded from harvesting within Mengiong – Gaat FMU.
4.Water CatchmentsTo identify on map and demarcated on ground for protection.
5.Boundary and Totally Protected AreaBuffer zone of 0.1 km width in radius will be demarcated on ground for protection.
6.Critical Resource and SitesBuffer zone of width 100 m surrounding identified critical resources and sites such as saltlick to be mapped and demarcated on ground.
7.Research Plot and Permanent Sample Plot (PSP)PSP established by FMU will be protected with at least 20 m buffer surrounding the plot perimeter boundary.
8.Community Use Area and Cultural or Religious Sites (if any)Free, prior, informed and consent (FPIC) will be applied to community use area, cultural site and religious site and demarcated on ground for protection purposes.
9.Potential Tourism AreaPotential ecotourism and recreational sites would be identified and demarcated on ground (if any).
10.High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF)To identify as protected area, to mark on map and demarcated on ground
  • There are 4 out of 6 HCVs as listed in the HCVF Malaysia Toolkit presence in the FMU.
  • There are 36 fauna and 29 floras threatened and endangered species found in the studied sites (HCV 1.2).
  • There are 19 endemic flora and 12 endemic fauna species (HCV 1.3).
  • Areas for critical temporal use ware identified (HCV 1.4).
  • The FMU is located within the Gaat – Mengiong Working Plan area and it is a significant large landscape forest for wildlife species to exist in natural patterns of distribution. In a regional perspective, the main riverine reserves is served as wildlife reservoirs and corridors with adjacent FTL area within the Gaat – Mengiong Management plan and is under part of the Kapit Stateland Forest and the Baleh Protected Forest initiatives (HCV 2).
  • Based on forest type classification, the Mixed Dipterocarp Forest (MDF) within the FMU is divided into lowland and upper Dipterocarp forests. Both forest types are accorded as medium priority for conservation by National Conservation Strategy (NCS) List of Priority Habitat. No distinct Heath Forest (Kerangas Forest) was detected in the FMU but rather a mixture of Heath and MDF forest were detected on the surrounding ridges of steep hills (HCV 3).
  • The FMU is located within Kapit Water Catchment and the legally gazette Baleh Water Catchment. Terrain Classes III and IV are present within the FMU (HCV 4.1).
  • The FMU has identified riparian areas and Terrain Class IV in the FMU (HCV 4.2).
  • No history of forest fire was found within the FMU. Adjacent forest containing other HCVs is considered potentially present even though no records or data of HCVs were found during the assessment. HCVs information on surrounding areas may be available if adjacent FTL areas are conducting their HCVF assessment in the future. The FMU is only surrounded by FTL areas; there is some human settlement either inside or located within 5 km adjacent to the licensed boundary (HCV 4.3).
  • No evidence of forest use by communities was found within the FMU. Being remotely located near the Hose Mountain Border and surrounded by FTL areas, there is some human settlement either inside or located within 5 km adjacent around the FMU boundary (HCV 5).
  • No evidence and record of critical forest use from any community was found within the FMU (HCV 6).
No.Management RecommendationAction Taken
1Demarcation of the buffer zone for forest reserved along the reserviour boundaryA 100 m buffer zone along the forest reserved in the reserviour was marked in General Harvesting Plan (GP) and approved by Forest Department Sarawak (FDS).  
2Monitoring of perimeter of buffer belt to have identification on any encroachment.Monitoring on all logging roads including the existing and old logging roads.Speed limitation of logging trucks and vehicles on the using of logging road to minimize the accidents in the FMU.
No.Management RecommendationAction Taken
3Maintenance of the protection on protected species under forestry Rules.All Endangered, Rare and Threatened (ERT) species listed in the Wildlife Protection Ordinance were not allowed to fell.
4To carry out marking on the protected trees during reduced impact logging to prevent felling accidentally.Tree for protection has been implemented in previous Coupe 15A (I) (planned as Coupes 6 & 7 in the recently proposed new GP).  
5Measures taken in assessing endangered, rare, and threatened  species in new coupes before commencing harvesting and trees tagging of all trees to be harvested.Training on ERT species was conducted by FDS at Sapphire Camp (KM-102) in July, 2019.Follow-up training on ERT was conducted by our in-house Honorary Wildlife Ranger in October, 2019.
6A training on the workers on recognition of protected species will be further improve the identification of these species within the FMU.One training session has been conducted by Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC) from 8th July, 2019 to 14th July, 2019 in Sapphire Camp (KM-102).  
7An education is on the local communities in recognizing protecting sites and wildlife.A briefing on the protected sites and wildlife was held in July, 2019 in the Mutiara Base Camp (KM-28).Awareness training program on ERT was conducted to forest workers at Mutiara Base Camp (KM-28).  
No.Management RecommendationAction Taken
8Honorary Wildlife Rangers and surveyors were instructed to monitor the presence of wildlife population in order to assess the number of these species before the commencement of forest harvesting activities. The baseline data was collected by WTK’s consulting on the status of mammal and avifauna species with recommendation for its management.The opportunity in monitoring the presence of wildlife population has also been conducted during the Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) exercise.  The assessment was done in 2019.An internal wildlife survey through patrolling was conducted by Honorary Wildlife Rangers in July 2019.A survey on the species distribution in the FMU by surveyors was conducted in June, 2019.Wildlife posters and Policy on “No Hunting” were made available in the FMU.
9An annual assessment with data collected during monitoring.Based on the data collected in the pre-harvest, inventory has basic information on ERT of 1.8 trees/hectare recorded in the 15 PSPs in Coupes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 21 and Block 1 of Coupe 1 (planned as Coupe 1 in the proposed GP).Monitoring in previous Coupe 15A (I), 2019 (planned as Coupes 6 and 7 in the proposed new GP) is still in progressing.
10The construction of guard house and gate in order to control on the hunting activities.A security gate and guards house has been constructed in the main entrance of FMU in 2019 with records of ingress (in) and egress (out) of workers and local communities (if any).Based on recording book, there was very few local communities entered into our FMU for hunting activity.
11A Wildlife Ranger in patrolling and detecting illegal activities with reporting to Forest Department Sarawak (if any).Two (2) Honorary Wildlife Rangers were appointed for Mengiong – Gaat FMU in July, 2019. More staff to be trained as Honorary Wildlife Rangers in Year 2020.  
12Camera trapping system to be installed for determination of ERT species to-date.A total of 3 camera traps has been installed in October, 2019 covers both active and post logging area, i.e. the previous Coupe 15A (I) (planned as Coupes 6 & 7 in the recently proposed new GP).Based on recently monitoring record, there were a total of 14 species has been captured through camera traps and hand held camera both in the post-harvesting Coupes 1 and 6 of the proposed new GP and active Coupe 15A (I), 2019.      
No.Management RecommendationAction Taken
13In order to confirm the endemic species,  more studies need to be conducted for more details information  The assessment of flora species was also conducted during the pre-harvesting inventory work. Assessment of fauna species was conducted through hand held camera and camera trapping system in Coupes 1 and 6.Based on the HCVF Assessment done by consultant, the HCV is considered as present.Recommended that:A training session on the identification of ERT species to be maintained.A continuous monitoring the presence of wildlife especially on endemic species.
No.Management RecommendationAction Taken
14Mengiong – Gaat FMU with saltlicks in Coupes 1 and 6 of new GP.Two (2) saltlicks have been identified by the survey crews in Coupe as new Coupes 1 and 6 and monitoring has been done.
15A 100 m x 100 m of buffer zone reserve shall be marked around the saltlicks in order to prevent the visiting wildlife being interfered from normal.Demarcation of 100 m x 100 m on ground for saltlicks sites in new Coupes 1 and 6 was done in year 2019. 
16Saltlicks shall only mark on map and demarcate on ground but there should be no signboard so as to attract the hunters.The buffer zone for saltlicks shall only be marked on map and demarcated on ground but not to put up signage for indicating the location of saltlicks sites, instead can put up signage on HCV 1.4.
17To conduct continuous monitoring of population and diversity of wildlife is through the installation of more camera traps.A more reliance result is through collaboration with the local communities to who may know the forest well.Three (3) camera traps have been set up in the two (2) saltlicks areas and monitoring in Coupes 1, 6 and 14 of the proposed new GP.According to Honorary Wildlife Rangers, there was no poaching activites found in the previous Coupe 15A (I).The monitoring in new Coupe 1 is still in progressing as it is planned an active coupe.
No.Management RecommendationAction Taken
18A map showing the Kerangas Forest Ecosystem.The Native Customary Right (NCR) Forest has been shown in the HCV map.  The demarcation of NCR forest land is in Coupe 25.  
No.Management RecommendationAction Taken
19A demarcation on ground and marked on mapThe demarcation on ground shall be done after Detailed Harvesting Plan (DP) approved by FDS.
20Field workers will be informed for not to carry out harvesting activities and detail planning map must mark the status of protected area.The protection status must clearly mark on the DP map.Field instruction with ground demarcation of the area is to avoid harvesting activities in the protected area.
No.Management RecommendationAction Taken
21Establishment of inventory plots in order to assess the vegetation types to compare its unique features with similar forest type.Certain portion of the FMU is inaccessible by road.  Therefore, the survey crew is expected to carry out ground reconnaissance during the establishment of inventory plots.There is no encroachment captures during the cleaning of the existing M-1 and M-2 in May, 2019.
22Mapping is completed and followed by demarcation on ground in active areas.Initially there is one (1) water catchment was identified within Mengiong – Gaat, namely Mutiara (28 KM) camp with nursery site and temporary skid house was lying inside the FMU boundary. .All water catchments have been mapped and demarcated for protection in June, 2019.Review of HCVF in 2019 shown that our FMU is located within Kapit Water Catchment and the legally gazette Baleh water catchment but it is not falling the 8 km radius of the water intake point.  Therefore, logging activities is not restricted.  HCV 4.1(3) is considered present.
23The annual monitoring of boundary and signageThe boundary and signage monitoring on the one water catchment were conducted in May 2019.Review of HCV in 2019 shows that none of the above water catchment is gazette as water catchment under Principle 9 of the MC&I (Natural Forest).
HCVManagement Recommendation
4.2Terrain Class IV area are mapped and included in DP as per GP (if any).Terrain Class IV shall also be mapped in the Comprehensive Harvesting Plan too.There will be no new skid trails inside the Terrain IV area.  To reuse the existing roads and skid trials.The Terrain IV has already been marked and mapped in the approved GP.  Therefore, DP shall follow GP for the annual coupe and also Comprehensive Harvesting Plan during the blocking.Terrain IV shall be marked and demarcated on ground with blue colour paint.The ground based bulldozers are not recommended for slope greater than 35° in slope and Low Impacts Logging (LIL) System such as yarder cable line system is recommended for harvesting, if any.
HCVMonitoring Recommendation
4.2The monitoring is to ensure this Terrain IV area being not encroached.

  1. Occupational Safety and Health:
  • The importance of safety and health is clearly stated in the Health, Safety and Environment Policy dated February, 2021 as the basis of necessitates our commitment to comply with this requirement.
  • A joint Safety and Health Committee has been established in the FMU with objectives as below:

o To reduce or minimize the risk of accident and ensuring a safe working environment, through limitation on the speed of logging trucks and company vehicles using the logging road.
o To have procedure in line with all the applicable or required laws, ordinances, rules and regulations.
o A gradually but firmly to establish the awareness of good mind set through continuous briefing and trainings.
o FMU management will allocate budget on training and education of her forest workers in order to improve their attitude, quality of work and performance in discharging their duties safety and efficiently.

  1. Social Impact Assessment (SIA):

According to SIA conducted, there was some local community issue. However, we will concern and carried out the monitoring and enhancement measures to all our forest workers by adopting the Community Representative Committee (CRC) and Employer-Employee Committee (EEC) to take care of our local communities and workers.

  1. Community Development

Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Liaison Committee, CRC and FMCLC will be formed which consist of representatives from the FMU holder, the forestry authority namely FDS or other relevant government agencies (co-opted and when necessary) and local communities to address grievances, social problems and land right claims, if any, by following the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) provided.

17. Research Collaboration:

The FMU is collaborating research studies with University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) on wildlife such as amphibians and reptiles or any other relevant fields at Mengiong – Gaat FMU.

18. Budget Allocation:

In order to achieve the forest management certification, the management of Mengiong – Gaat FMU has planned and allocated a total of estimate of operations cost amounting RM35,457,334.00 for a period of 5 years from Year 2020 to Year 2024.